What is ROR in land records? 

What is ROR in land records? 

Home Buyer's Guide | Aug 6, 2022 | 10 min read

A Record of Rights (ROR) is a single piece of document that contains all the necessary details of a land parcel including extent, ownership, and encumbrance. The ROR document plays a key role in understanding the ownership of the property. This document will soon substitute the puzzling land documents and cumbersome procedures related to land registration and transaction. 

The structure of the document and the information contained varies from one state to the other. It helps an individual claim his right to the property when challenged. In this article, we will explore more about the importance of ROR and why it came into existence. 

What is ROR? 

The Record of Rights or ROR is a primary document that records the property’s transaction from time to time along with the information on how rights on land are derived by the landowner. 

It also comprise details regarding any loans taken by the occupant, details of rights of the owner or the occupant, and if there are any community or government rights on the land. 

The ROR document is also commonly known as Revenue Records as it includes tax registers for the collection of revenue from land. It is maintained with the different officers at different levels. 

Typically, a ROR includes the below information: 

  • Location of the land 
  • The extent of the land inclusive of the total area 
  • Name of all the persons who have acquired rights in the said land 
  • The nature and limits of each person’s rights and liabilities in the land 
  • Encumbrances created on the land if any 
  • Classification of land as a fragment 
  • Other classification and reservations on the land 
  • If the land is used for agricultural activities, details of the same including information about Rabi and Kharif crops 
  • Details of charges of attachment and decrees under the order of the civil court or revenue authorities 
  • Income generated from the land 

Advantages of using ROR 

The introduction of ROR has helped in accessing the land details without going through a bunch of mind-boggling land documents concealing the important information. It has now become an important document to be added to your list while planning to buy a property. It plays a key role in understanding property ownership.  

Below, we have listed some advantages of using ROR: 

  • ROR is an important document to indicate the legal status of the land. ROR includes several classifications of the rights such as homeowners, tenancy rights, the mortgage with or without possession, leasehold rights, etc. 
  • ROR is a handy tool when it comes to identifying the land and establishing its extent 
  • ROR also keeps a record of the crops last grown on the agricultural land 
  • ROR keeps a record of registered documents and mutations. It helps in creating transparency and providing accurate land information under a single roof along with the assurance of data integrity 
  • The money obtained as rent or revenue from the property will be considered legally earned money 
  • Many states have digitised ROR resulting in easy access to land information. Anyone can view property land records and their legal status online to avoid an in-person visit to the revenue office. In case of any discrepancies, the viewer can raise an issue. 

Limitations of using ROR 

We have established how ROR has successfully substituted the tiresome land registration procedures but since there is still a long way to go, it has certain limitations. We will take a look at these limitations below: 

  • ROR is poorly maintained. To combat this issue, several states in India are in the process of digitization 
  • ROR often misses out on the on-ground position. The ROR contains several types of land details including property maps, sale deeds, etc. The ROR documents are maintained across different departments at several levels (district, village, etc.). Since these departments work in silos, the data is not updated properly leading to discrepancies in the land records. Digitization of the ROR process will help in resolving this issue. 
  • ROR are not proof of title. According to a Supreme Court judgement, a lessee will not be entitled to any right on the land solely on the basis of an entry in the revenue record. 

Conclusion 

The primary objective of the record of rights is to collect the land revenue from the person who is liable to pay the amount under the land revenue act. The presence of accurate ROR is important for a smooth system of assessment and collection of land revenue. 

In absence of ROR, it becomes extremely difficult to determine who is liable to pay the revenue over any particular piece of land, and also makes it hard to settle disputes between different claimants of the land. Hence, making ROR a crucial document in the land revenue system. It is undoubtedly a great tool to get all your insights about the property from a single document. 

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